Q What is potato blight?
A Potato blight (Phytophthora infestans) or 'late blight' is a devastating fungus disease that spreads rapidly in wet weather. Like a mildew disease, to which it is related, it attacks the foliage, but can get washed down to damage the tubers. Blight also attacks tomatoes, and has been recorded on aubergines. Related plants, such as peppers, seem immune.
Caption: Cut off the foliage at ground level if blight strikes and wait two weeks before harvest
Q How do I recognise potato blight?
A The first signs are small, dark spots, often on the edges of leaves. If the weather is wet, a white mould surrounds these spots, usually on the underside of the leaf. This shows that spores are being produced. The spots grow, covering the whole leaf. They also spread onto stems.
Infected tubers have brown and purple skin blotches that go into the flesh of the tuber. The flesh is brown/red and granular. Infected tubers may shrivel and dry, but are often infected by rotting organisms and liquefy in storage, smelling strongly and contaminating other tubers.
Q Could I mistake it for anything else?
A Early blight also blackens leaves, but with concentric rings of darkened leaf. It usually attacks older leaves and does little damage. Viral diseases can also speckle leaves with black spots and stunt growth.
Tubers can be infected with scab, spots, rots and gangrene. The spots and rots can be difficult to tell apart from blight as the end result, a liquefied potato, is the same. Fortunately, the same counter-measures apply.
Q When should I expect an attack?
A Blight can develop if the temperature is 10°C plus for two days with high humidity. In these conditions, the disease spreads rapidly. In hot, dry weather it temporarily 'dries up', but breaks out again if conditions become favourable. This typically happens during early summer in the west and late summer in the east.
Q How can I avoid it?
A Dig out as many tubers as you can when you gather the potatoes. At the end of the season, remove all potato tubers, even tiny ones, and destroy them. Digging over the plot so frost can kill any remaining tubers will help. Throw away, burn or bury deeply any leftover or rotting tubers from storage, so they can’t grow the following year. Protect new crops by earthing up well. A layer of soil will protect tubers from spores falling from infected foliage.
Q Can potato blight be sprayed?
A No, there are no longer any chemical controls available for potato blight.
Q Can I rescue infected plants?
A Cutting off infected foliage can prevent spores from reaching the tubers. Leave at least two weeks between removing the foliage and lifting the tubers, so viable spores lurking on the soil surface don’t contaminate the tubers as you lift them. Store the tubers in dry, cool conditions to reduce the disease’s activity and subsequent rotting. Check potatoes every month; get rid of rotting ones.
Q Can potato blight be prevented?
A Using certified disease-free seed potatoes and good garden hygiene will help to prevent blight, but the spores of the disease are carried on the breeze, so few gardens will escape. You could try covering the crop with an open-ended polythene tent to keep the foliage dry. Avoid high-nitrogen fertiliser, as this stimulates growth of soft, blight-susceptible foliage.
To avoid the worst of blight outbreaks you could also grow early or second-early varieties and lift before August.
Q Are there any resistant varieties available?
A 'Sarpo Axona' and 'Sarpo Mira' were both extremely resistant in our trial.